1. How many types of floors are there?
The domestic best-selling floors for indoor use are nothing more than three categories: solid wood flooring, solid wood composite flooring, and laminate flooring.
1. Solid wood flooring
It is made from natural logs after drying and processing.
There are many advantages: the texture is natural and beautiful; the foot is comfortable when stepping on the wood; it is a poor conductor of heat, which is warm in the winter and cool in the summer; not afraid of rubbing. The so-called "worn out" is just that the paint on the surface is worn off. ; No glue, no formaldehyde (except for a very small amount of formaldehyde that comes with wood species).
The shortcomings are also obvious: delicate.
Jiao refers to the poor stability of solid wood, thermal expansion and cold shrinkage, wet expansion and dry shrinkage. In severe cases, it may be separated, warped, arched, or even cracked;
Expensive not only means that the price of solid wood flooring is the highest among the three types of flooring, but also requires maintenance costs in the later period.
Solid wood composite flooring is a derivative of solid wood flooring, generally 150~400 yuan/㎡, divided into three layers and multiple layers (the number of layers is generally an odd number), and is made of solid wood surface layer, substrate core layer and bottom layer, with glue in the middle. .
Three-layer solid wood composite floor
Multi-layer solid wood composite floor
The surface layer is commonly used with high-quality wood species with hard texture and beautiful texture. The core layer and bottom layer are commonly used soft wood such as pine and poplar.
For multi-layers, the surface layer is usually 0.6~3mm thick; for three-layers, the surface layer is usually 2~4.5mm thick; only a sufficiently thick surface can retain the texture and foot feel of solid wood to a certain extent.
The top is multi-layered, and the bottom is three-layered
As for the disadvantages, the laminates of solid wood composite flooring are all pressed with glue (the amount of glue for three layers is less than that of multiple layers). If there is glue, formaldehyde will be released, and the environmental protection is slightly worse than that of solid wood flooring.
3. Laminate floor
Also called composite floor, reinforced composite floor, generally 50-150 yuan/㎡, made of wear-resistant layer, decorative layer, fiberboard core layer, and balanced moisture-proof bottom layer.
The decorative layer is melamine impregnated paper, which can imitate all patterns, but the artificial patterns will be repeated. The higher the craft level of the brand, the lower the pattern repetition rate;
The wear-resistant layer is made of aluminum oxide (Al₂O₃) wear-resistant paper. The wear resistance is expressed by the number of revolutions. The household floor requires more than 6000 revolutions; it is precisely because of its existence that the laminate floor will not leave scratches when scratched with hard objects. Basically will not be smashed out of the small pit, the service life is as long as 10-20 years;
The core layer is made of fast-growing wood or wood processing residues, ground into fibers, added with a large amount of glue, and pressed at high temperature. It has good stability but poor environmental protection.
4. Comparison of three types of flooring
Briefly summarize the performance pros and cons of the three types of flooring, which one to choose, please decide according to actual needs and budget~
Price: Solid Wood Flooring＞Solid Composite Flooring＞Laminate Flooring
Stability: Laminate floor＞Solid wood composite floor＞Solid wood floor
Environmental protection: solid wood floor＞three-layer solid wood composite floor＞multilayer solid wood composite floor＞Laminate floor
Foot feeling: solid wood floor＞three-layer solid wood composite floor＞multi-layer solid wood composite floor＞Laminate floor
2. What is the criterion for judging the environmental protection of the floor?
What is the most afraid of decoration? Formaldehyde.
First of all, our country's norms are:
According to the "Limit of Formaldehyde Emission in Interior Decoration Materials and Wood-based Panels and Products" (GB 18580-2001), the formaldehyde emission level E1 ≤ 1.5 mg/L, E2 ≤ 5 mg/L is stipulated, of which E1 products can be directly used indoors Therefore, all floors on the market that meet the national standard E1 level are environmentally friendly products and can be purchased.
For laminate flooring, there are higher standards. According to "Impregnated Paper Laminated Wood Flooring" (GB/T 18102-2007), the formaldehyde emission level E0 ≤0.5mg/L, E1 level ≤1.5mg/L, E0 level It is currently the highest standard for formaldehyde emissions from wood-based panels in my country, but E1 laminate flooring is also compliant. (There is currently no E0 standard for solid wood flooring and solid wood composite flooring)
However, we do not recommend blindly pursuing "in line with international standards" for the following reasons:
First, countries use different detection methods to detect formaldehyde under different detection conditions, and then set the standard value. Whose standard is more environmentally friendly and cannot be directly compared;
Second, if the business claims that the product meets certain standards, first confirm whether there is a test report (or certification certificate) from an authoritative organization. For example, if you want to obtain Japanese certification, you must either import certified products or raw materials from Japan, or send samples to the NSK Association of Japan for testing. After passing the test, you will be awarded certification... However, the act of "forging a certificate" is not ruled out;
Third, the floor testing generally adopts the "send for inspection" method, that is, the manufacturer selects samples by themselves and sends them to the testing agency for testing, and the testing results issued by the agency are only responsible for the samples... It is visible, and certification does not represent all the products in the batch. qualified;
In summary, it is emphasized again that for all flooring products sold in China, please refer to the national standard for judging the environmental protection.
When purchasing flooring, the merchant is required to produce a test report, and carefully check the brand, sample model and batch of the flooring, testing agency (the national standard certification is preferably from the provincial quality supervision bureau, forestry bureau, etc.), test results (national standard E1/ E0)
In short, the better the raw materials, the less the formaldehyde, the more environmentally friendly the product, the most intuitive feeling presented to consumers is the higher the price; whether the specific price is proportional to the cost, has nothing to do with domestic or imported, only with the conscience of the brand...
Please note that the formaldehyde mentioned above is the "formaldehyde emission", not the formaldehyde content, because the formaldehyde contained in the board basically has no effect on the human body, and only the free formaldehyde released will endanger health.
The release of formaldehyde is continuous, up to 3 to 15 years. Therefore, the effect of activated carbon method and plant method to absorb formaldehyde is minimal. The best way to remove formaldehyde after decoration is ventilation, ventilation, and ventilation!
3. How to choose solid wood flooring?
1. Choose wood species
Wood species are divided into high, middle and low grades, and the price is proportional to the grade.
Generally speaking, the ordinary grades include birch, elm, and Panlongan, etc.; the mid-range grades include disc beans (green mulberry), two-winged beans, niudoun beans, merbau (pineapple grid), and ash wood (shuiqu Willow), etc.; high-end teak, oak (oak), heavy ant wood, walnut, cherry wood, balsamic peas (red sandalwood), rosewood, etc.
Of course, there are high and low points for the same wood species, such as the hot oak in recent years: the same oak, the red oak is more expensive than the white oak, because the red oak currently on the market has a higher average grade and better color difference control.
Sometimes businesses play word games and sell "rubber wood" as "oak". The identification method is:
Oak is generally imported from Europe and North America. It is a high-quality hardwood with a heavy hand feeling, a clear mountain-shaped texture, and a smooth and delicate touch;
Rubber wood generally comes from Southeast Asia, and its density is much lower than that of oak. It has a loose texture, light touch, fuzzy texture, scars, and more black lines.
So, if the merchant tells you "our oak is Thai oak, imported from Thailand," please shake his face with indifference.
There are also some wood species that sound awesome, such as African red sandalwood and Brazilian rosewood, which are usually ecological solid wood (mixed and extruded with wood fiber, resin, and polymer materials), or other tree species are covered with paint, Disguised as.
Because these precious wood species are rarely used for floors, even if they are used on floors, they are different from those used for furniture. (Just like huanghuali used for mahogany furniture, rosewood is used for mahogany floors...)
The conclusion is: choose common wood species and avoid uncommon or so-called rare wood species to prevent being pitted.
2. Select the level
The classification of "National Standard for Solid Wood Flooring" is excellent product, first-class product, qualified product, corresponding to the A-level, B-level, and C-level (also called AA-level, A-level, and B-level) in business terms, which should be National standards shall prevail.
Most of the floors on the market are qualified products, which require no defects such as cracks, bends, wormholes, dead joints, etc.; a small number of first-class and high-quality products are selected on the basis of qualified products with clear texture, less scarring, and Made of plates with small color difference.
The same brand usually uses high-grade boards for light-colored floors and low-grade boards for dark floors, so that the natural-color floor of the varnish may be more expensive than the floor of the antique paint, because the antique paint is heavy and it is easier to remove the wood itself. The shortcomings are covered up.
3. Choose specifications
There are many sizes of solid wood flooring, generally 910mm long, 122mm wide, and 18mm thick. If it is smaller than this size, it can be called a non-standard board, such as a short board with a length of 600 or 750mm and a narrow board with a width of 90mm.
Compared with the standard board, the non-standard board is more cost-effective (because the material is the same and the price is lower), if the budget is limited, you can consider it.
However, if the merchant recommends you a so-called special price that is lower than common sense, you must first confirm that the floor meets the common specifications (do not rule out the possibility of low-price sale after refurbishment of second-hand floor).
Large-size floors have become more and more popular in recent years. There are 1200mm or even 1800mm long, and the price rises, but the stability decreases (especially in the case of floor heating, when the floor is heated, the larger the size, the faster the water spreads, and the easier it is to shrink, causing the floor to separate. Sew).
Therefore, the floor size should be moderate. A simple method is to choose according to the size of the room: if the room is large, use a large board, which is more atmospheric (small boards will appear messy); if a room is small, use a small board, with less loss (usually the smaller the room, the greater the loss).
Solid wood flooring is the most expensive of the three types of flooring. Therefore, businesses may use laminate flooring and solid wood composite flooring to pretend to be solid wood flooring.
The method to identify solid wood flooring is: first observe the cross section of the floor, the texture of the cross section of the solid wood is the continuation of the front texture;
Look again at the paved floor, whether there are repeated patterns, because the texture of natural wood is unique, it is impossible to have two identical floors!
Tips: Ecological solid wood flooring, laminated solid wood flooring
Merchants often dig two kinds of pits for owners to jump on, one is called "ecological solid wood flooring" and the other is called "paste solid wood flooring."
Ecological solid wood flooring (also called ecological wood flooring), in addition to the kind of wood fiber, resin, and polymer materials mentioned above, is mixed and extruded, and there is also a kind of decorative paper on the solid wood floor to make natural wood New suits that cannot be formed.
You must know that the business is not profitable and can’t afford to take care of it. It takes trouble to get an extra layer of skin. It may have another purpose, such as covering up the defects of the original solid wood (worm eyes, excessive color difference, etc.); even if the wood has no defects, the wood species is often the most important. Cheap Panlongan... Therefore, it is not recommended to choose ecological solid wood flooring.
Veneered solid wood is completely deceiving consumers. It is likely that the A-grade veneer is attached to the B-grade substrate (sold at a price higher than the B-grade), or the high-end wood species is attached to the low-grade wood species.
How to distinguish ecological solid wood flooring, laminated solid wood flooring and normal solid wood flooring? Look at the back of the floor. Because the tree rings are continuous, the texture of the front and back of the real solid wood floor generally does not differ too much (the pattern may be slightly more complicated in the center of the tree).
4. How to choose solid wood composite floor?
To identify whether the surface layer of the solid wood composite floor is real solid wood, the method is to observe the cross section of the floor, and you can also find that the texture is the continuation of the front.
Also pay attention to identifying the thickness of the veneer. Some profiteers dared to sell the 0.6mm surface layer as 1mm or 2mm. From the side, the solid wood veneer seems to be thick, but it is actually painted with thick paint.
The surface layer of some solid wood composite floors is made of small pieces of wood in two or three pieces, the price is low, and it is very popular in foreign countries (crooked nuts like the splicing effect of small wood slats with large color difference). If the budget is limited, you can consider it.
Tips: Laminate flooring pretends to be parquet
Because laminate flooring itself has the name "laminate flooring", it is easy to confuse it with "parquet flooring". The profiteers will fool around a few more words, and the decoration Xiaobai will be completely confused...
It must be remembered that although there are many layers, each layer of the parquet is solid wood! It's all solid wood!